Table of Contents
Last year’s introduction started with “The year 2020 is the most memorable in many of our lives, especially those of us in the fitness industry.” We predicted that the worldwide pandemic known as COVID-19 would change everything. Well, it did, and now as we enter the year 2022, the fitness world continues to feel its effects. The more widespread use of vaccinations, mitigation efforts, and our need to get back to a normal lifestyle may have influenced the 2022 survey results. For example, new to last year’s survey was the inclusion of new trends such as online training and virtual training (the no. 1 trend for 2021). For 2022, online live and on-demand exercise classes fell to no. 9. The no. 1 trend was wearable technology (the no. 2 trend for 2021 but no. 1 for 2019 and 2020). Home exercise gyms is the no. 2 trend for 2022, and outdoor exercise is the no. 3 trend. No doubt the result of COVID-19 recommendations, outdoor exercise was the no. 4 trend for 2021 but was no. 17 for 2019, and no. 13 in 2020. High-intensity interval training (HIIT) was the no. 1 trend in 2014 but fell to no. 5 for 2021 and continues to drop, now at no. 7 for 2022. The results of this annual survey will help the health and fitness industry make critical business decisions for future growth and development. These investments can be based on emerging trends that have been identified by health fitness professionals all over the world instead of basing these decisions on the latest exercise infomercials found on television, social media, or the next hottest celebrity endorsing a product.
For the last 16 years, the editors of ACSM’s Health & Fitness Journal® (FIT) have circulated an electronic survey to thousands of professionals around the world to determine health and fitness trends for the following year. This survey guides health and fitness programming efforts for 2022 and beyond. The first survey (1), conducted in 2006 (for predictions in 2007), introduced a systematic way to forecast health and fitness trends, and these surveys have been conducted annually since that time (2–15) using the same methodology. As this is a survey of trends (and not fads), respondents were asked to first make the very important distinction between a “fad” and a “trend.”
These annual ACSM Worldwide Surveys of Fitness Trends can be used in the commercial (usually for-profit companies), clinical (including medical fitness centers), community (not-for-profit companies), and corporate divisions of the health and fitness industry. They continue to confirm previously identified trends but also recognize some new emerging trends, along with COVID-19-related trends that appeared for the first time in 2021 and are continuing for 2022. The fitness trends survey does not attempt to evaluate products, services, equipment, gym apparatus, hardware, software, tools, or other exercise machines that may appear in clubs or recreation centers or show up in television infomercials or on social media. The survey was designed to confirm or to introduce new trends (not fads) that will have a perceived positive impact on the industry according to the international respondents. Some of the trends identified in earlier surveys could predictably appear for several years, whereas fads may appear but will expectedly drop off the list in subsequent years (some staying in the rankings for as little as 1 year). The potential market impact of new equipment, an exercise device, or program is not evaluated by this annual survey. The information provided in this survey is left entirely up to the readers to determine if it fits their own business model, and how to best use the information for potential market expansion.
Commercial health clubs (those that are for-profit and the largest sector of the industry) can use these results for the establishment (or maybe the justification) of potential new markets, which may result in increased and more sustainable revenue drivers. Corporate wellness programs and medical fitness centers will find these results useful through potential increases in service to their members and to their patients. Community-based programs (typically not-for-profit organizations) can use these results to justify investments in their markets by providing expanded programs typically serving families and children. The health and fitness industry should carefully consider and thoughtfully apply this information to its own unique setting.
Every attempt was made to replicate the survey delivery as in the past 16 years. For the 2022 survey, there were 43 possible trends. The top 25 trends from previous years were included in the survey, as were some potentially emerging trends identified by the editors of ACSM’s Health & Fitness Journal®. The editors represent all four sectors of the health fitness industry (corporate, clinical, community, and commercial) as well as from academia. In the survey, potential trends were identified, followed by a short explanation to offer the respondent a few details without inconveniencing them with too much reading, analysis, or interpretation. The survey was designed to be completed in about 15 minutes, which was intended to help the response rate. As an incentive to complete the survey, the editors made available to 10 randomly selected winners fitness-related books published by Wolters Kluwer/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins and Human Kinetics and a $100 MasterCard gift card. These incentives were designed to help increase participation in the survey.
As in all previous years, the survey was constructed using a Likert-type scale ranging from a low score of 1 (least likely to be a trend) to a high score of 10 (most likely to be a trend). After each scoring opportunity, space was allowed for additional comments. At the survey conclusion, space was provided for the respondent to include comments or potential fitness trends left off the list to be considered for future surveys, as well as some demographic information. The next step was to send the survey electronically to a defined list of health and fitness professionals. Using SurveyMonkey (www.surveymonkey.com), the online survey was initially sent to 123,615 people (a 64% increase from last year’s record of 75,383), including current ACSM certified professionals, those who registered to attend the 2021 ACSM’s International Health & Fitness Summit, the ACSM Certification email opt-in list, ACSM Alliance members, ACSM professional members who have added a FIT subscription, nonmember FIT subscribers, FIT Associate Editors, and FIT Editorial Board members. A link also was shared on the FIT Web site and on various social media sites, including the FIT Twitter page, the ACSM Journal’s Facebook page, and ACSM’s Instagram page. This year, the online/social media link solicited 427 responses. The survey response total was 4,546, up 169 responses from last year’s total number of responses of 4,377. The response rate was 3.5%, which is comparable to previous years.
Responses were received from just about every continent, including the countries of Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, France, Germany, Japan, India, Italy, Russia, Singapore, Serbia, United Kingdom, and the United States, among many others. Demographics of the survey respondents included 60% females (40% males) across a wide variability in ages (Figure 1), with 51% of all respondents having more than 10 years of industry experience (Figure 2) and 25% with more than 20 years of experience. More than 36% of the survey respondents earned an annual salary of more than $50,000, which included more than 6% who earned at least $100,000 a year (Figure 3). Respondents were asked to identify their occupations (Table 1), with 20% indicating that they were full-time or part-time personal trainers. Figure 4 indicates where respondents work, with 33% indicating they were in private practice or they owned their own business. Figure 5 indicates the broad range of certifications held by the survey respondents (38% reported not having a certification). When asked if they worked full-time or part-time (Figure 6), 62% indicated full-time and 29% part-time (less than 20 hours per week).
Survey Respondents’ Occupation (What Is Your Primary Profession?)
|Respondent Occupation||Total Respondents (%)|
|Registered dietitian (RD, RDN, LD)||1|
|Group exercise leader||3|
|Clinical exercise physiologist||5|
|Personal trainer (part-time)||10|
|Personal trainer (full-time)||10|
|Medical professional (MD/DO, RN, physical therapist, occupational therapist)||10|
The top 20 fitness trends for 2022 are described in this report. For a comparison of the top 10 trends from the past 15 years’ surveys (1–15) and 2022, please see the comprehensive comparison table available online (available at https://links.lww.com/FIT/A193). The 2022 survey results (Table 2) reveal potential trends as defined in the survey. It is not unusual for potential trends to drop out of the top 20 and later to be labeled as a fad. New to the top 20 trends for 2022 include a new no. 1 trend, wearable technology, and a new no. 2 trend, home exercise gyms. Online training was redefined for clarity to online live and on-demand exercise classes and was no. 26 for 2020, no. 1 for 2021, but has fallen to no. 9 for 2022. Dropping two places to no. 7 is HIIT, and falling to no. 20 is group exercise training. Continuing out of the top 20 from 2021 include circuit training (no. 17 for 2020, no. 26 for 2021, and no. 24 for 2022), worksite health promotion and workplace well-being (no. 18 for 2020, no. 27 for 2021, and no. 28 for 2022), children and exercise (no. 20 for 2020, no. 28 for 2021, and no. 29 for 2022), and outcomes measures (no. 20 for 2021 and no. 22 for 2022).
Top 20 Worldwide Fitness Trends for 2022
|Rank||Top 20 Worldwide Fitness Trends for 2022|
|2||Home exercise gyms|
|4||Strength training with free weights|
|5||Exercise for weight loss|
|7||High Intensity Interval Training|
|8||Body weight training|
|9||Online live and on-demand exercise classes|
|11||Fitness programs for older adults|
|12||Exercise is Medicine|
|13||Employing certified fitness professionals|
|14||Functional fitness training|
|16||Mobile exercise apps|
|17||Online personal training|
|18||Licensure for fitness professionals|
|20||Group exercise training|
The response rate was 3.5% with a total of 4,546 responses.
1. Wearable technology
Wearable technology has been the no. 1 trend since it was first introduced on the survey in 2016, except for 2018 (no. 3) and 2021 (no. 2). This trend includes fitness or activity trackers, smart watches, heart rate monitors, and GPS tracking devices. Examples include fitness and activity trackers like those manufactured by Polar®, Fitbit®, Wyze®, Whoop®, Samsung®, Jawbone®, Misfit®, Garmin®, Coros®, and Apple®. These devices can be used as a step counter and can track heart rate, body temperature, calories, sitting time, sleep time, and much more. Initially, there was some question of wearable technology accuracy, but these issues have seemed to be resolved well enough that it has been estimated to be about a US $100 billion industry. New innovations include blood pressure, oxygen saturation, body temperature, respiratory rate, and electrocardiogram.
2. Home exercise gyms
Home gyms will continue to be a popular alternative to going to a gym as a consequence of the global COVID-19 pandemic. People will continue to isolate themselves by staying home and taking advantage of the abundant equipment now available, along with effective online classes. Home gyms can use minimal equipment or expensive treadmills and bikes. Home gyms can also be solo or family events. This is the first year home exercise gyms have appeared as a fitness trend. As the world emerges from the isolation imposed by the COVID-19 pandemic, home gym manufacturers will need to make major adjustments, including lowering the price of equipment, to convince consumers that home gyms are a better option than place-based gyms.
3. Outdoor activities
Perhaps because of the COVID-19 pandemic, more outdoor activities such as small group walks, group rides, or organized hiking groups have become popular. For 2021, outdoor activities ranked no. 4. Outdoor activities can either be short events, daylong events, or planned weeklong hiking excursions. Participants meet in a local park, hiking area, or on a bike trail typically with a designated leader. This trend for health and fitness professionals to offer outdoor activities for their clients began in 2010. In that year, outdoor activities ranked no. 25 in the annual survey, and it ranked no. 27 in 2011.
4. Strength training with free weights
Surveys conducted before 2021 included a category described as “strength training.” That description was determined to be too broad; therefore, strength training was dropped in 2020 in favor of the more specific “strength training with free weights.” Free weights, barbells, kettlebells, dumbbells, and medicine ball classes do not just incorporate barbells into another functional class or activity. Instructors start by teaching proper form for each exercise and then progressively increase the resistance once the correct form is accomplished. Proper technique/movement skills are taught for each new exercise introduced. Training with free weights debuted at no. 4 for 2020 and dropped to no. 8 for 2021.
5. Exercise for weight loss
Perhaps because of the self-quarantine imposed by the COVID-19 pandemic and the resulting perceived (or real) weight gain, exercise for weight loss made a comeback in 2022. Most diet programs recommend including some type of exercise program into the daily routine of caloric restriction, adding the caloric expenditure of physical activity into the equation. Exercise in weight loss programs has been a top 20 trend since the survey began. In 2009, exercise and weight loss was ranked as low as no. 18 before regaining popularity through 2015. Starting in 2016, this trend began to move down the list to a low of no. 16 for 2021.
6. Personal training
One-on-one training continues to be a strong trend as the profession of personal training becomes more accessible online, in health clubs, in the home, and in worksites. Personal training includes fitness testing and goal setting with the trainer working one-on-one with a client to prescribe workouts specific to their individual needs and goals. Since this survey was first published in 2006 (1), personal training has been a top 10 trend.
7. High Intensity Interval Training
Although a part of the survey as a possible trend before 2013 but not making the top 20, HIIT was no. 1 in the survey for 2014 and 2018 and remained in the top 5 each year between 2014 and 2021 (no. 5); however, for 2022, HIIT drops out of the top 5 for the first time ever, to no. 7. These exercise programs typically involve short bursts of high-intensity bouts of exercise followed by a short period of rest. Although there are a variety of HIIT formats and programs available, all emphasize higher intensities of maximum (above 90%) during the increased intensity segments followed by periods of rest and recovery. Despite warnings by some fitness professionals of potentially increased injury rates using HIIT, this form of exercise has been popular in gyms all over the world.
8. Body weight training
Body weight training appeared for the first time on the trends survey in 2013 (at no. 3) and was in the no. 2 position for 2017, no. 4 for 2018, and no. 5 for 2019 before dropping to no. 7 for 2020 and then rebounding to no. 3 for 2021. Body weight training did not appear as a survey trend option before 2013 because it only became popular (as a defined trend) in gyms around the world within the last decade. Using a combination of variable resistance body weight training and neuromotor movements using multiple planes of movement, this program is all about using body weight as the training modality. Body weight training uses minimal equipment, which makes it an inexpensive way to exercise effectively.
9. Online live and on-demand exercise classes
Virtual online training was first introduced on the annual survey for 2019 and debuted at no. 3 before dropping to no. 26 in 2020 when the “virtual” was dropped from the title in favor of the more specific online training. For 2021, online training was the no. 1 trend. For the 2022 survey, online training was redefined more specifically as online and on-demand exercise classes. One of the big changes within the health fitness industry resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic was the temporary closure of clubs around the world, forcing innovative delivery of classes. The challenges of engaging clients at a distance resulted in the use of some very strategic delivery systems. Online training was developed for the at-home exercise experience. This trend uses digital streaming technology to deliver group, individual, or instructional exercise programs online. Online training is available 24/7 and can be a live class (live streaming workouts) or prerecorded.
10. Health/wellness coaching
Previous surveys included wellness coaching, but for the 2019 survey, the term “health” was added, which better describes this trend. Wellness coaching has been in the top 20 trends since 2010 and was listed as no. 17 in 2014, no. 13 in 2015 and 2016, no. 15 in 2017, no. 18 in 2018, no. 11 in 2019, no. 9 in 2020, and no. 11 for 2021. This is a trend that integrates behavioral science into health promotion and lifestyle medicine programs. Health/wellness coaching uses a one-on-one (and at times small group) approach with the coach providing support, goal setting, guidance, and encouragement. The health/wellness coach focuses on the client’s values, needs, vision, and short- and long-term goals using behavior change intervention strategies.
11. Fitness programs for older adults
This trend is making a return after being in the top 10 in 2007 (when it was the no. 2 trend) and dropping to no. 11 for 2017. In 2018, fitness programs for older adults was the no. 9 trend, no. 4 for 2019, no. 8 for 2020, and no. 9 for 2021. This trend continues to stress the fitness needs of the baby boom and older generations. These individuals in general have more discretionary money than their younger counterparts do, and fitness clubs may be able to capitalize on this growing market. People are living longer, working longer, and remaining healthy and active well into their retirement years.
12. Exercise is medicine
Exercise is medicine (EIM) is a global health initiative that focuses on encouraging primary care physicians and other health care providers to include physical activity assessment and associated treatment recommendations as part of every patient visit and referring their patients to exercise professionals. Additionally, EIM recognizes fitness professionals as part of the health care team in their local communities. EIM was the no. 7 trend in 2017, no. 12 for 2018, no. 10 for 2019, and jumping to no. 6 for 2020 and no. 7 for 2021.
13. Employing certified fitness professionals
This trend debuted at no. 6 in 2019 then dropped to no. 10 for 2020 and has now been at no. 13 for both 2021 and 2022. The importance of hiring certified health fitness professionals through educational programs and certification programs that are fully accredited for health fitness professionals has remained a steady trend. More certification programs have become accredited by the National Commission for Certifying Agencies, allowing employers easy access to certification validation through the United States Registry of Exercise Professionals and the International Confederation of Registers for Exercise Professionals. Employing certified fitness professionals was a new survey item for 2019 replacing “educated, certified, and experienced fitness professionals,” which was too broadly defined as a survey entry.
14. Functional fitness training
Replicating actual physical activities someone might do as a function of their daily routine, functional fitness first appeared on the survey in the no. 4 position in 2007 but fell to no. 8 in 2008 and no. 11 in 2009. It reappeared in the top 10 for 2010 at no. 7 and in 2011 as no. 9. In 2012, functional fitness was the no. 10 trend and ranked as high as no. 8 for 2014 but fell to no. 14 for 2021. This trend focuses on using strength training to improve balance, coordination, muscular strength, and endurance to improve activities of daily living typically for older adults but also in clinical populations.
Traditional yoga includes Hatha, Vinyasa, Ashtanga, Bikram, and Iyengar, but it has taken on a variety of more recent versions (including Power Yoga, Flow Yoga, Yogilates, Hot Yoga, Rocket Yoga, and many others) and is now available as on-demand videos and books. Yoga first appeared in the top 10 on this survey in 2008, fell out of the top 20 in 2009, but made a great comeback in the 2010 (no. 14) and 2011 surveys (no. 11). Yoga has ranked as high as no. 7 but in the top 20 since 2010.
16. Mobile exercise apps
Now available for mobile devices, apps like FitOn, Adidas Training, Map My Fitness, Sworkit, Daily Workout Fitness Trainer, Aaptiv, 8fit, Fitify, Asana Rebel, Jefit, Pacer, MyFitnessPal, and Nike Training Club include both audio and visual prompts to begin and end exercise and cues to move on. Some of these apps can track progress over time as well as hundreds of other functionalities. These apps are available for mobile devices such as the iWatch® iPhone®, iPad®, and Android devices. Mobile exercise apps ranked no. 20 in the 2019 survey, no. 25 in 2020, and no. 12 in 2021.
17. Online personal training
Developed for the at-home and traveling public exercise experience, this trend uses digital streaming (live classes or recorded) technology to deliver individual instructional exercise programs online. Online personal training includes interactive personal training and is available 24/7. It can be a live class (live streaming workouts) or prerecorded. This trend was limited to one-on-one training sessions as opposed to the no. 9 trend for 2022, online live and on-demand exercise classes, which are designed for more group exercise programs.
18. Licensure for fitness professionals
There are some professions in the United States and around the world that are regulated by either local, state, or national licensure. For example, people cannot call themselves a medical doctor or nurse without holding the appropriate state or federal government license, and in many places the same holds true for a physical therapist or dietitian. This is a trend in the fitness industry to pursue regulation of fitness professionals such as personal trainers and exercise physiologists. Licensure for fitness professionals first appeared as a fitness trend in 2018 when it was ranked no. 16, then no. 18 in 2019, and no. 15 for 2020 before settling in at no. 19 for 2021 and no. 18 for 2022.
19. Lifestyle medicine
Lifestyle medicine is the evidence-based practice of helping individuals and families adopt and sustain healthy behaviors that affect health and quality of life. Examples of target patient behaviors include, but are not limited to, eliminating tobacco use, improving diet, increasing physical activity, and moderating alcohol consumption. Lifestyle medicine promotes healthy behaviors as the foundation to medical care, disease prevention, and health promotion. Lifestyle medicine appeared for the first time in the fitness trends survey at no. 16 in 2020, no. 18 for 2021, and now is the no. 19 trend.
20. Group exercise training
Group exercise training programs have been around for a long time and have appeared as a potential worldwide trend since this survey was originally constructed. However, it was only in 2017 that group exercise training made the top 20, appearing at no. 6 followed by no. 2 in the 2018 and 2019 surveys. For 2020, group training fell slightly to no. 3. However, for the 2021 survey, group training fell dramatically to the no. 17 spot and now no. 20. Defined as more than five participants, group exercise instructors teach, lead, and motivate individuals through intentionally designed bigger in-person group movement classes. Group classes are designed to be effective, motivational sessions for different fitness levels with instructors teaching many types of classes and equipment, from cardio-based classes and indoor cycling to dance-based classes and step classes. The dramatic drop in the 2021 and 2022 trends survey may be the result of gyms closing or the recommendation to limit social gatherings.
WHAT’S OUT FOR 2022?
Dropping out of the top 20 from 2021 was outcomes measurements. Dropping out of the top 20 from 2020 and remaining out were circuit training, worksite health promotion and workplace well-being, and children and exercise. Circuit training, which is no. 24 this year, has been in the top 20 twice recently (no. 17 in 2018 and 2020). Worksite health promotion and workplace well-being has been ranked as high as no. 15 (2019) and has dropped since to no. 18 (2020), no. 27 (2021), and now no. 28 for 2022. Children and exercise was the worldwide no. 1 trend in 2007 but has slowly lost ground, dropping to no. 20 by 2020. The past 2 years has seen it drop even further, coming in at no. 29 for 2022. Outcome measurements has remained relatively consistent since debuting at no. 21 trend for 2018, reaching as high as no. 16 (2019) and now at its lowest (no. 22) for 2022. Postpublication commentary on these results is always interesting with one group or another arguing that their interest is a popular trend. Readers of this survey must understand that regional popularity does not always translate as an international trend.
Online training went from the no. 26 trend in 2020 to the no. 1 trend for 2021, likely due to a shift in the fitness market from clubs to homes because of the COVID-19 pandemic. However, it then dropped to the no. 9 spot for 2022, whereas COVID-19 was still very present, perhaps in anticipation of a return to normal, including more social interaction. Wearable technology has again taken the no. 1 spot in the global rankings, the same as 2019 and 2020. HIIT, the no. 1 trend in 2014 and 2018, has dropped slightly since yet still remains a consistently popular trend at no. 7 for 2022. Group exercise training made a significant return in 2017 as the no. 6 trend and was the no. 2 trend for both 2018 and 2019, no. 3 for 2020, and fell to no. 17 in 2021 and is now at no. 20, possibly due to the lingering effects of crowd avoidance due to COVID-19. Training with free weights (which replaced barbell training for 2020) was the no. 4 trend in 2020, no. 8 for 2021, and is now back up to no. 4 for 2022. Personal training is still a top 10 trend, sitting at no. 6 for 2022, up from no. 10 in 2021. Fitness programming aimed at older adults had regained some popularity after falling out of the top 10 trends in 2017, appeared as the no. 9 in 2018, no. 4 in 2019, no. 8 in 2020, no. 9 for 2021, and is now no. 11 for 2022. Body weight training first appeared as a fitness trend at no. 3 in 2013 and has been a top 5 fitness trend since that time, realizing a peak as the no. 1 fitness trend in 2015. Body weight training was the no. 5 trend in 2019, no. 7 trend in 2020, no. 3 for 2021, and no. 8 for 2022. Other trends to watch are outdoor activities (no. 4 in 2021 and no. 3 for 2022), online live and on-demand exercise classes (no. 9), and EIM (no. 7 in 2021 but dropped to no. 12 for 2022). Dropping out of the top 20 in 2021 and remaining out for 2022 were circuit training (no. 24), worksite health promotion and workplace well-being (no. 28 for 2022), and exercise programs specifically designed for children (no. 29 for 2022).
BRIDGING THE GAP
The 2022 Worldwide Survey of Fitness Trends is now in its 16th consecutive year with this being perhaps the most critical year because of the COVID-19 pandemic, the return to some form of normalcy within the industry and shifting health club business models. The survey was designed to help and support the health fitness industry when making critical programming and business decisions to capture additional business into the future, and maybe even to stay in business after a turbulent 2 years. The results of this survey are relevant to all four sectors of the health and fitness industry (commercial for-profit clubs, clinical or medical fitness programs, corporate wellness programs, and community-based not-for-profit fitness programs). Although no one can accurately predict the future of any industry, this survey helps to track trends that assist owners, operators, program directors, and health fitness professionals with making their important business and program decisions.
The author thanks past Editors-in-Chief Ed Howley, Ph.D., FACSM, and Steven Keteyian, Ph.D., FACSM, for considering this project important enough to include in ACSM’s Health & Fitness Journal® more than a decade ago, and to the current Editor-in-Chief Brad Roy, Ph.D., FACSM, for continuing the tradition. The author also thanks the ACSM’s Health & Fitness Journal® editorial team, especially those who contributed to the original survey in 2006, Paul Couzelis, Ph.D.; John Jakicic, Ph.D., FACSM; Nico Pronk, Ph.D., FACSM; Mike Spezzano, M.S.; Neal Pire, M.A., FACSM; Jim Peterson, Ph.D., FACSM; Melinda Manore, Ph.D., R.D., FACSM; Cary Wing, Ed.D.; Reed Humphrey, Ph.D., P.T., FACSM; and Steve Tharrett, M.S., for their very important input into the construction of the original and subsequent surveys. The author also thanks the Fitness Trends Working Group of Vanessa Kercher, Ph.D., ACSM-EP, M.Ed.; Kyle Kercher, M.S., ACSM-EP; Trevor Bennion, D.H.Sc.; and Paul Levy, M.P.H. Finally, the author is indebted to the ACSM staff who have supported this study by assisting in the construction, formatting, analysis, and delivery of it to thousands of fitness professionals around the world. In particular, the author recognizes the important contributions of Francis Neric, Kela Webster, Heather Drake, Katie Feltman, and especially Lori Tish, who has tirelessly worked on this survey since it first launched in 2006.